Explaining OpenStack Cinder Types and Scheduler

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Overview

OpenStack Cinder is responsible for handling block storage in the context of OpenStack. Cinder provides a standard API and interface that allows storage companies to create their own drivers in order to integrate storage capabilities into OpenStack in a consistent way. Each storage pool exposed to OpenStack Cinder is a backend and you can have many storage backends. You can also have many of the same kind of storage backends. In this article we will look at two advanced features Cinder provides: types and the scheduler.

Cinder types essentially allow us to label Cinder storage backends. This allows for building out storage services that have expected characteristics and capabilities. The Cinder driver exposes those storage capabilities to Cinder.

The Cinder scheduler is responsible for deciding where to create Cinder volumes when we have more than one of the same kind of storage backend. This is done by looking at the filter rules in order to identify the most appropriate storage backend. More about filter rules can be found here.

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Red Hat OpenStack Platform 10 (Newton) Installation and Configuration Guide

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Overview

In this article we will setup an OpenStack environment based off Newton using the Red Hat OpenStack Platform. OpenStack is OpenStack but every distribution differs in what capabilities or technologies are supported and how OpenStack is installed, configured as well as upgraded.

The Red Hat OpenStack Platform uses OpenStack director based on the TripleO (OpenStack on OpenStack) project to install, configure and update OpenStack. Director is a lifecycle management tool for OpenStack. Red Hat’s approach is to make OpenStack easy to manage, without compromising on the “Open” part of OpenStack. If management of OpenStack can be simpler and the learning curve brought down then it has a real chance to be the next-gen virtualization platform. What company wouldn’t want to be able to consume their internal IT resources like using AWS, GCE or Azure if they didn’t give up anything to do so? We aren’t there yet but Red Hat is making bold strides and as you will see in this article, is on a journey to make OpenStack consumable for everyone!

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OpenStack Swift Integration with Ceph

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Overview

In this article we will configure OpenStack Swift to use Ceph as a storage backend. Object of cloud storage is one of the main services provided by OpenStack. Swift is an object storage protocol and implementation. It has been around for quite a while but is fairly limited (it uses rsync to replicate data, scaling rings can be problematic and it only supports object storage to just mention a few things). OpenStack needs to provide storage for many use cases such as block (Cinder), block (Glance), file (Manila), block (Nova) and object (Swift). Ceph is a distributed software-defined storage system that scales with OpenStack and provides all these use cases. As such it is the defacto standard for OpenStack and is why you see in OpenStack user survey that Ceph is 60% of all OpenStack storage.

OpenStack uses Keystone to store service endpoints for all services. Swift has a Keystone endpoint that authenticates OpenStack tenants to Swift providing object or cloud storage on a per-tenant basis. As mentioned, Ceph provides block, file and object access. In the case of object Ceph provides S3, Swift and NFS interfaces. The RADOS Gateway (RGW) provides object interfaces for Ceph. S3 and Swift users are stored in the RGW. Usually you would want several RADOS GWs in an active/active configuration using a load balancer. OpenStack tenants can be given automatic access and their Keystone tenant ids are automatically configured in the RADOS GW when Swift object storage is accessed from given tenant.

Using Ceph with OpenStack for object storage provides tenants access to cloud storage, integrated with OpenStack using swift and automatically handles authentication of OpenStack tenants. It also provides advantage that external users or tenants (outside of OpenStack) such as application developers can access object storage directly with  protocol of choice: S3, Swift or NFS.

Integrating Ceph with OpenStack Series:

In order to integrate OpenStack Swift with Ceph you need to first follow below prerequisites:

  • Configure OpenStack environment here
  • Configure Ceph cluster here

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OpenStack Manila Integration with Ceph

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Overview

In this article we will configure OpenStack Manila using CephFS as a storage backend. OpenStack Manila is an OpenStack project providing file services. Manila is storage backend agnostic and you can have many different kinds of storage backends, similar to Cinder. CephFS is a POSIX-Compliant file system that uses the Ceph storage cluster to store data. CephFS works by providing a Metadata Server (MDS) that collectively manages filesystem namespaces. It also coordinates access to Ceph Object Storage Damones (OSDs). Ceph MDS has two modes: active or passive. There are several documented active/passive MDS configurations and multi-mds or active/active MDS that can be configured when a single MDS becomes a bottleneck. Clients can mount CephFS filesystems using the ceph-fuse client or kernel kernel driver.

Integrating Ceph with OpenStack Series:

Prerequisites

The following are required to configure OpenStack Manila with CephFS:

  • Already configured Ceph cluster (Jewel or higher). See here to setup Ceph cluster.
  • Already configured OpenStack (Mitaka or higher). See here to setup OpenStack.

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OpenStack 10 (Newton) Lab Installation and Configuration Guide

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Overview

In this article we will focus on installing and configuring OpenStack Newton using RDO and the packstack installer. RDO is a community platform around Red Hat’s OpenStack Platform. It allows you to test the latest OpenStack capabilities on a stable platform such as Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) or CentOS. This guide will take you through installing the OpenStack Liberty release, configuring networking, security groups, flavors, images and are other OpenStack related services. The outcome is a working OpenStack environment based on the Newton release that you can use as a baseline for testing your applications with OpenStack capabilities.
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OpenStack Mitaka Lab Installation and Configuration Guide

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Overview

In this article we will focus on installing and configuring OpenStack Mitaka using RDO and the packstack installer. RDO is a community platform around Red Hat’s OpenStack Platform. It allows you to test the latest OpenStack capabilities on a stable platform such as Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) or CentOS. This guide will take you through installing the OpenStack Liberty release, configuring networking, security groups, flavors, images and are other OpenStack related services. The outcome is a working OpenStack environment based on the Mitaka release that you can use as a baseline for testing your applications with OpenStack capabilities.
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